Rural Local Bodies
In rural India, local governance has been distributed at different levels. The Gram Sabha or the village assembly is the first level, the next level is the Gram Panchayat that is located at the existing or potential growth centers, covering a group of people villages, its representatives are elected by the people for five years. There is a need to stimulate the Gram Sabha, the first level, and to broaden the base of Gram Panchayats, so that the forces of interaction can bring villages together in a wider community with wider viability. The strengthening of these institutions is a necessary prelude to rural development, since the Panchayats plan, execute and monitor all the development programs, like minor irrigation projects or education.
Urban Local Bodies
The urban Local bodies include Municipal Corporation and Municipal Council. The Constitution Seventy-Fourth Amendment Act passed in December 1992 has revived municipal governments. Among other things, it mandates that elections for municipal bodies must be held within six months of the date of their dissolution. The amendment also provides for financial review of the municipalities in order to enable recommendations concerning the distribution of proceeds from taxes, duties, tolls, and fees.
The proportion of elected women representatives in local self Government is testimony to the political and social empowerment of women in local self-governance.
The Government of India has charted a tripartite agreement with the state Governments and the chambers of industry to modernize and upgrade the existing state Government-run ITIs
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNURM) was launched in 2005 for integrated development of urban infrastructure services with the assistance of the Centre, state and local bodies. The mission has two simultaneous objectives—urban infrastructure governance and basic services to the urban poor, including housing, water supply, sanitation, slum improvement, and community toilets/baths. The mission will cover 60 cities with a million-plus population (all State capitals and other cities considered important) till 2012. JNURM will transform cities and lift the living standard of its citizens.
Regional disparities and imbalances in the country have spurred rural migration. During the 1991-2001 decade, 98 million people migrated to urban centres. Out of this, 33 million were males and 65 million were females. Of the total intercensal migrants, 83 percent were intrastate migrants and 17 percent were interstate migrants.
Existing centres of excellence should be encouraged to establish international centres to attract overseas students. Foreign Direct Investment in education should be allowed in areas of science, technology and management. With a view to create a world-class skilled labour force, the Indian Government is laying emphasis on eight states in the northern region to upgrade the existing government-run ITIs as Centres of Excellence (COE). The Government of India has charted a tripartite agreement with the state Governments and the chambers of industry to modernize and upgrade the existing state Government-run ITIs. The government aims to produce multi-skilled workforce and impart training courses in sync with the current needs of the industry to address the burgeoning demand for skilled technical manpower.
Government of India has approved setting up of 20 new Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNV) during 2008-09 in 20 districts having large concentration of students belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. These would be an addition to existing 554 such schools in 34 states and Union Territories. These schools will offer modern educational facilities to students from rural areas. All expenses on boarding and lodging of the JNVs as well as expenses on their uniforms and stationeries will be borne by the Government of India.
Civil Nuclear Cooperation
India’s energy requirement is quite substantial and the Government had to locate various sources of energy, including civil nuclear cooperation with countries like the United States, France, and Russia. The immediate benefit of the Indo-US nuclear deal would be in getting the latest technology for nuclear power generation. This would improve electricity supply situation in India’s households.